Air-conditioning systems are installations that are able to achieve, preserve and control fixed temperature and relative humidity conditions in the served environments. All modern air conditioning units are inverter type, i.e. they can both cool and heat.
Air is the heat transfer fluid used to regulate the characteristics of the air in the room. The air is taken from outside, cooled or heated in the central unit, and then distributed in the rooms through a system of ducts.
They use water as the heat transfer fluid. Commonly, they are also called air-water systems because the heat transfer fluid (water) exchanges thermal energy with the air supplied to the environment. Air-water systems are very effective, especially for structures such as old buildings where there is little space for channels. In fact, water can transfer larger amounts of energy than air even with small volume ducts.
REFRIGERANT FLUID SYSTEMS
Refrigerant systems use special fluids composed of hydrogen, fluorine and other elements called “Freon” as a heat transfer fluid. They are also known as direct expansion systems and are divided into:
Mono split systems: There is an indoor unit connected to an outdoor unit. This type of system is very practical to install and manage, is usually cheaper and does not have excessive running costs. However, the single split air conditioner is not suitable for structures consisting of several rooms because it would be too invasive (each room would have its own external unit).
Dual or multi split systems: In dual or multi split air conditioners we find two or more indoor units connected to a single outdoor unit. This type of system ensures greater installation flexibility because it allows several rooms to be conditioned with a single external unit.
VRF (Variable refrigerant flow) systems: these are direct expansion heat pump systems. Thanks to their technical characteristics, they are able to have a high performance even when not operating at full capacity, thus allowing considerable energy savings. They are therefore suitable for installation in structures consisting of many rooms (e.g. hospitals, offices, shopping centres) but are also well suited to residential buildings.
For the control of room temperature and humidity, specially designed air conditioning systems are available to meet special requirements, such as: operating theatres, laboratories, clean rooms, etc., providing environmental conditions in full compliance with current regulations.